Friday, May 22, 2020

Reed v. Reed Striking Down Sex Discrimination

In 1971, Reed v. Reed became the first U.S. Supreme Court case to declare sex discrimination a violation of the 14th Amendment. In Reed v. Reed, the Court held that an Idaho laws unequal treatment of men and women based on sex when selecting administrators of estates was a violation of the Constitutions Equal Protection Clause. Also known as:  REED V. REED, 404 U.S. 71 (1971) Fast Facts: Reed v. Reed Case Argued:  October 19, 1971Decision Issued:  November 22, 1971Petitioner:  Sally Reed (appellant)Respondent:  Cecil Reed (appellee)Key Questions: Did the Idaho Probate Code violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by refusing to let Sally Reed be named administrator of her son’s estate based solely on gender?Unanimous Decision:  Justices Burger, Douglas, Brennan, Stewart, White, Marshall, and BlackmonRuling:  The Idaho Probate Code specifying that males must be preferred to females in appointing administrators of estates was found to be in violation of the 14th Fourteenth Amendment and declared unconstitutional. The Idaho Law Reed v. Reed examined Idaho probate law, which deals with the  administration of an estate after a persons death. The Idaho statutes automatically gave mandatory preference to males over females when there were two competing relatives to administer a deceased persons estate. Idaho Code Section 15-312 listed the classes of persons entitled to administer the estate of one who dies intestate. In order of preference, they were 1. Surviving spouse 2. Children 3. The father or mother 4. The brothers 5. The sisters 6. The grandchildren†¦and so on through next of kin and other legally competent persons.Idaho Code Section 15-314 stated that if there were several persons equally entitled under section 15-312 to administer the estate, such as two persons in category 3 (the father or the mother), then males must be preferred to females, and relatives of the whole to those of the half blood. The Legal Issue Did the Idaho probate law violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment? The Reeds were a married couple who had separated. Their adopted son died of suicide without a will, and an estate of less than $1000.  Both Sally Reed (mother) and Cecil Reed (father) filed petitions seeking appointment as administrator of the sons estate. The law gave preference to Cecil, based on the controlling Idaho statutes that said males must be preferred. The language of the state code was that males must be preferred to females. The case was appealed all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Result In the Reed v. Reed opinion, Chief Justice Warren Burger wrote that the Idaho Code cannot stand in the face of the 14th Amendments command that no State deny the equal protection of the laws to any person within its jurisdiction.  The decision was without dissent.Reed v. Reed was an important case for feminism because it recognized sex discrimination as a violation of the Constitution. Reed v. Reed became the basis of many more decisions that protected men and women from gender discrimination. Idahos mandatory provision preferring males to females reduced the probate court workload by eliminating the need to hold a hearing to determine who was better qualified to administer an estate. The Supreme Court concluded that the Idaho law did not achieve the states objective - the objective of reducing the probate court workload - in a manner consistent with the command of the Equal Protection Clause. The dissimilar treatment based on sex for persons in the same class of section 15-312 (in this case, mothers and fathers) was unconstitutional. Feminists working for the Equal Rights Amendment(ERA) noted that it took more than a century for the Court to recognize that the 14th Amendment protected womens rights. Fourteenth Amendment The 14th Amendment, providing for equal protection under laws, has been interpreted to mean that people in similar conditions must be treated equally.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges†¦of citizens of the United States†¦nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.†Ã‚  It was adopted in 1868, and the  Reed v. Reed  case was the first time the Supreme Court applied it to women as a group. More Background Richard Reed, then 19 years old, committed suicide using his fathers rifle in March of 1967.  Richard was the adopted son of Sally Reed and Cecil Reed, who had separated.  Sally Reed had custody of Richard in his early years, and then Cecil had custody of Richard as a teenager, against the wishes of Sally Reed.  Both Sally Reed and Cecil Reed sued for the right to be the administrator of Richards estate, which had a value of less than $1000.  The Probate Court appointed Cecil as administrator, based on Section 15-314 of Idahos code specifying that males must be preferred to females,  and the court did not consider the issue of capabilities of each parent. Other Discrimination Not at Issue Idaho Code section 15-312 also gave preference to brothers over sisters, even listing them in two separate classes (see numbers 4 and 5 of section 312). Reed v. Reed explained in a footnote that this part of the statute was not at issue because it did not affect Sally and Cecil Reed. Since the parties had not challenged it, the Supreme Court did not rule on it in this case. Therefore, Reed v. Reed struck down the dissimilar treatment of women and men who were in the same group under section 15-312, mothers and fathers, but did not go so far as to strike down the preference of brothers as a group above sisters. A Notable Attorney One of the lawyers for appellant Sally Reed was Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who later became the second female justice on the Supreme Court.  She called it a turning point case. The other chief lawyer for the appellant was Allen R. Derr.  Derr was the son of Hattie Derr, Idahos first female state Senator (1937). Justices The sitting Supreme Court Justices, who found without dissent for the appellant, were  Ã‚  Hugo L. Black, Harry A. Blackmun, William J. Brennan Jr., Warren E. Burger (who wrote the Courts decision), William O. Douglas, John Marshall Harlan II, Thurgood Marshall, Potter Stewart, Byron R. White.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Biography of John Donne Essay - 3729 Words

Biography of John Donne John Donne was an English poet and probably the greatest metaphysical poets of all time. He was born in 1572 to a Roman Catholic family in London. His father died when John was young leaving his mother Elisabeth to raise him and his siblings. Throughout Donne’s life his experiences with religion were full of trials and tribulations, something that can be clearly seen in his poetry over time. He remained Catholic early in life while he attended both Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Interestingly enough he never received a degree at either university because doing so would have required him to take the Oath of Supremacy, a doctrine that was the core of the Anglican religion recognizing the King as head of the†¦show more content†¦This helped the financial situation significantly and Donne also worked as a lawyer and continued to write, penning the Divine Poems in 1607. During this time in his life Donne displayed a strong knowledge of the Anglican faith, and penned a few anti-Catholic poems, gaining him the respect of King James who encouraged him to become ordained. This position would drastically help his family’s financial status as his family had grown significantly. Done eventually accepted the position reluctantly. In 1617 Anne died giving birth to her twelfth child, who was stillborn. Stricken with grief, Donne was prompted to write the Holy Sonnets that conveyed the love shared both physically and spiritually between Anne and himself. Donne never remarried, and raised his seven remaining children on his own. He became very prominent throughout London for his unique style of preaching, which many were very attracted to and found mesmerizing. In fact, many of his sermons went on to be published (Ross 1). In 1621 Donne became dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral. However, it seemed his last ten years of life were plagued with an obsession of death. He suffered great illness and as he knew that his time of death grew nearer, much of his preaching and writing conveyed his fear of death, until Donne passed away in 1631 (Menon 1). Donne’s literary works enjoyed great popularity and received great admiration during his lifetime and for a good generation after his death. His reputation as aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of A Valediction Forbidding Mourning 1108 Words   |  5 PagesA Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, John Donne employs conceit, symbolism, and tone to poetically paint a picture of the true love that exist between a man and his wife. John Donne was born on January22, 1572 to a Catholic family in England. (John Donne Biography) In his twenties Donne spent a lot of money on women, books and traveling. ( John Donne Biography) In 1601 Donne became a member of Parliament and married Anne More. ( John Donne Biography) Neither of the families approved ofRead MoreJohn Donne Love Poetry1442 Words   |  6 Pagesmake him stand out as a distinguished poet compared with his contemporaries. John Donnes poetry does not portray the unchanging view of love but express the poet’s genuine and deep emotions and attitudes of different circumstances and experiences. Donne tries to define his experience of love through his own poetry; these experiences are personally felt by the reader as they are part of common human experiences. Donne brings out love as an experience of the body, the soul or at times both, theseRead More John Donnes A Valediction of my Name, In the Window Essay1600 Words   |  7 PagesJohn Donnes A Valediction of my Name, In the Window      Ã‚  Ã‚   My name engraved herein/Doth contribute its firmness to this glass (1-2). It is a small but exquisitely considered act - a man carefully etches his name into a window, hoping to preserve his identity for future generations. Immediately, sensory details flow into my mind at the thought of such a momentous event. The precise scratch of the tool, the small flakes of glass that chip away, the beams of sunlight backlighting my ownRead MoreThe Most Important Of Writers Developed With A New Type Of Fictional Writing2094 Words   |  9 Pagesthrough the 1930’s during and after the war. One of the most important of these writers was John Dos Passos. Dos Passos was a creative novelist where in his writing he analyzed his love/hate relationship with the traditions of American life and consistently questioned the American dream (Wagner-Martin). His full name was John Roderigo Dos Passos. He was born on January 14th, 1896 in Chicago Illinois. His father, John Randolph D os Passos, was a wealthy lawyer who could afford to give him the best educationRead MoreAnalysis Of Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe Essay1989 Words   |  8 Pagescompletely lost in anguish and cannot seem to move on, whereas in â€Å"A valediction; Forbidding Mourning† by John Donne the narrator is accepting of the goodbye because he knows that spiritually they and their love will always be together. The contrasting events that take place are the tragic events after their loved ones being lost, which shows the difference in personalities from authors Poe and Donne and how they view love after a separation. Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literaryRead MoreEssay Johnson Poetry Analysis 789 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare and the other parts by Lord Chamberlain’s Men. His friends and himself called themselves the â€Å"Tribe of Ben† and usually met at the Devil Head. Some of his close friends were William Shakespeare who was in the play â€Å"Every Man Humor and John Donne. The Tribe of Ben also known as the son of Ben was to most of the Cavalier English poets of the 17th century. The Tribe of Ben was a self-description by some of the Cavalier poets who admired and were influenced by Jonsons poetry. Some of the rulesRead MoreHow Does The Language Affect Culture Is Formed And Retained?1201 Words   |  5 Pagesthree types of Vernacular dramas were mystery (based on a biblical story), morality (moral lesson), or Legend. It is important to note that around this time is when the literature definition of legend changed. Up until this point, legends were biographies of Saints, such as the Prioresse’s story in the Canterbury Tales. Once vernacular dramas started to gain popularity, the subjects began to shift from saints to anyone, us ually a hero. Robin Hood is an example of a vernacular legend drama. TheRead MoreIdeology Is A Controversial Concept For A Long Time995 Words   |  4 Pagespractical goals and circumstances shape people’s actions. Different from both of the above, the socialism emphasizes the role of community. â€Å"No man is an Island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the Continent, a part of the main.† Said the poet John Donne. They prefer collaboration rather than competition, and collectivism rather than individualism. Socialists favour interpreting people’s behaviour by social factors, reflecting the importance of nurture. On the other hand, for liberalism, individualsRead MorePoems with Theme with Life and Death and Their Analysis8446 Words   |  34 Pagessomething about the author’s intentions. Although there is a great and natural temptation to take the author at his word, conclusions about theme that are erected on the author’s own statement need careful evaluation. Hence, biographies of some famous/well-known poets, along with their poems, are presented in this paper. Some basic elements of poem and types of poem are included. Structures: A poem is almost captive to the language in which it is writtenRead MoreComparative Stylistic Analysis of a Poem3580 Words   |  15 Pagestoday. So that the children of the world May live and grow and laugh and play. BRIEF BIOGRAPHY ABOUT THE AUTHORS AND THEIR PIECES George Herbert             George Herbert was born in  Montgomery, Wales, on April 3, 1593, the fifth son of Richard and Magdalen Newport Herbert. After his father s death in 1596, he and his six brothers and three sisters were raised by their mother, patron to  John Donne  who dedicated his  Holy Sonnets  to her. Herbert was educated at  Westminster School  and Trinity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The road to polyamory Free Essays

string(71) " marriage has become a reality\? Surely the ACLU will lead the charge\." Will same-sex matrimony extend marriage’s stabilizing effects to homosexuals? Will gay marriage undermine family life? A lot is riding on the answers to these questions. But the media’s reflexive labeling of doubts about gay marriage as homophobia has made it almost impossible to debate the social effects of this reform. Now with the Supreme Court’s ringing affirmation of sexual liberty in Lawrence v. We will write a custom essay sample on The road to polyamory or any similar topic only for you Order Now Texas, that debate is unavoidable. Among the likeliest effects of gay marriage is to take us down a slippery slope to legalized polygamy and â€Å"polyamory† (group marriage). Marriage will be transformed into a variety of relationship contracts, linking two, three, or more individuals (however weakly and temporarily) in every conceivable combination of male and female. A scare scenario? Hardly. The bottom of this slope is visible from where we stand. Advocacy of legalized polygamy is growing. A network of grass-roots organizations seeking legal recognition for group marriage already exists. The cause of legalized group marriage is championed by a powerful faction of family law specialists. Influential legal bodies in both the United States and Canada have presented radical programs of marital reform. Some of these quasi-governmental proposals go so far as to suggest the abolition of marriage. The ideas behind this movement have already achieved surprising influence with a prominent American politician. None of this is well known. Both the media and public spokesmen for the gay marriage movement treat the issue as an unproblematic advance for civil rights. True, a small number of relatively conservative gay spokesmen do consider the social effects of gay matrimony, insisting that they will be beneficent, that homosexual unions will become more stable. Yet another faction of gay rights advocates actually favors gay marriage as a step toward the abolition of marriage itself. This group agrees that there is a slippery slope, and wants to hasten the slide down. To consider what comes after gay marriage is not to say that gay marriage itself poses no danger to the institution of marriage. Quite apart from the likelihood that it will usher in legalized polygamy and polyamory, gay marriage will almost certainly weaken the belief that monogamy lies at the heart of marriage. But to see why this is so, we will first need to reconnoiter the slippery slope. Promoting polygamy DURING THE 1996 congressional debate on the Defense of Marriage Act, which affirmed the ability of the states and the federal government to withhold recognition from same-sex marriages, gay marriage advocates were put on the defensive by the polygamy question. If gays had a right to marry, why not polygamists? Andrew Sullivan, one of gay marriage’s most intelligent defenders, labeled the question fear-mongering–akin to the discredited belief that interracial marriage would lead to birth defects. â€Å"To the best of my knowledge,† said Sullivan, â€Å"there is no polygamists’ rights organization poised to exploit same-sex marriage and return the republic to polygamous abandon. † Actually, there are now many such organizations. And their strategy–even their existence–owes much to the movement for gay marriage. Scoffing at the polygamy prospect as ludicrous has been the strategy of choice for gay marriage advocates. In 2000, following Vermont’s enactment of civil unions, Matt Coles, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s Lesbian and Gay Rights Project, said, â€Å"I think the idea that there is some kind of slippery slope [to polygamy or group marriage] is silly. † As proof, Coles said that America had legalized interracial marriage, while also forcing Utah to ban polygamy before admission to the union. That dichotomy, said Coles, shows that Americans are capable of distinguishing between better and worse proposals for reforming marriage. Are we? When Tom Green was put on trial in Utah for polygamy in 2001, it played like a dress rehearsal for the coming movement to legalize polygamy. True, Green was convicted for violating what he called Utah’s â€Å"don’t ask, don’t tell† policy on polygamy. Pointedly refusing to â€Å"hide in the closet,† he touted polygamy on the Sally Jessy Raphael, Queen Latifah, Geraldo Rivera, and Jerry Springer shows, and on â€Å"Dateline NBC† and â€Å"48 Hours. † But the Green trial was not just a cable spectacle. It brought out a surprising number of mainstream defenses of polygamy. And most of the defenders went to bat for polygamy by drawing direct comparisons to gay marriage. Writing in the Village Voice, gay leftist Richard Goldstein equated the drive for state-sanctioned polygamy with the movement for gay marriage. The political reluctance of gays to embrace polygamists was understandable, said Goldstein, â€Å"but our fates are entwined in fundamental ways. â€Å" Libertarian Jacob Sullum defended polygamy, along with all other consensual domestic arrangements, in the Washington Times. Syndicated liberal columnist Ellen Goodman took up the cause of polygamy with a direct comparison to gay marriage. Steve Chapman, a member of the Chicago Tribune editorial board, defended polygamy in the Tribune and in Slate. The New York Times published a Week in Review article juxtaposing photos of Tom Green’s family with sociobiological arguments about the naturalness of polygamy and promiscuity. The ACLU’s Matt Coles may have derided the idea of a slippery slope from gay marriage to polygamy, but the ACLU itself stepped in to help Tom Green during his trial and declared its support for the repeal of all â€Å"laws prohibiting or penalizing the practice of plural marriage. † There is of course a difference between repealing such laws and formal state recognition of polygamous marriages. Neither the ACLU nor, say, Ellen Goodman has directly advocated formal state recognition. Yet they give us no reason to suppose that, when the time is ripe, they will not do so. Stephen Clark, the legal director of the Utah ACLU, has said, â€Å"Talking to Utah’s polygamists is like talking to gays and lesbians who really want the right to live their lives. † All this was in 2001, well before the prospect that legal gay marriage might create the cultural conditions for state-sanctioned polygamy. Can anyone doubt that greater public support will be forthcoming once gay marriage has become a reality? Surely the ACLU will lead the charge. You read "The road to polyamory" in category "Papers" Why is state-sanctioned polygamy a problem? The deep reason is that it erodes the ethos of monogamous marriage. Despite the divorce revolution, Americans still take it for granted that marriage means monogamy. The ideal of fidelity may be breached in practice, yet adultery is clearly understood as a transgression against marriage. Legal polygamy would jeopardize that understanding, and that is why polygamy has historically been treated in the West as an offense against society itself. In most non-Western cultures, marriage is not a union of freely choosing individuals, but an alliance of family groups. The emotional relationship between husband and wife is attenuated and subordinated to the economic and political interests of extended kin. But in our world of freely choosing individuals, extended families fall away, and love and companionship are the only surviving principles on which families can be built. From Thomas Aquinas through Richard Posner, almost every serious observer has granted the incompatibility between polygamy and Western companionate marriage. Where polygamy works, it does so because the husband and his wives are emotionally distant. Even then, jealousy is a constant danger, averted only by strict rules of seniority or parity in the husband’s economic support of his wives. Polygamy is more about those resources than about sex. Yet in many polygamous societies, even though only 10 or 15 percent of men may actually have multiple wives, there is a widely held belief that men need multiple women. The result is that polygamists are often promiscuous–just not with their own wives. Anthropologist Philip Kilbride reports a Nigerian survey in which, among urban male polygamists, 44 percent said their most recent sexual partners were women other than their wives. For monogamous, married Nigerian men in urban areas, that figure rose to 67 percent. Even though polygamous marriage is less about sex than security, societies that permit polygamy tend to reject the idea of marital fidelity–for everyone, polygamists included. Mormon polygamy has always been a complicated and evolving combination of Western mores and classic polygamous patterns. Like Western companionate marriage, Mormon polygamy condemns extramarital sex. Yet historically, like its non-Western counterparts, it de-emphasized romantic love. Even so, jealousy was always a problem. One study puts the rate of 19th-century polygamous divorce at triple the rate for monogamous families. Unlike their forebears, contemporary Mormon polygamists try to combine polygamy with companionate marriage–and have a very tough time of it. We have no definitive figures, but divorce is frequent. Irwin Altman and Joseph Ginat, who’ve written the most detailed account of today’s breakaway Mormon polygamist sects, highlight the special stresses put on families trying to combine modern notions of romantic love with polygamy. Strict religious rules of parity among wives make the effort to create a hybrid traditionalist/modern version of Mormon polygamy at least plausible, if very stressful. But polygamy let loose in modern secular America would destroy our understanding of marital fidelity, while putting nothing viable in its place. And postmodern polygamy is a lot closer than you think. Polyamory AMERICA’S NEW, souped-up version of polygamy is called â€Å"polyamory. † Polyamorists trace their descent from the anti-monogamy movements of the sixties and seventies–everything from hippie communes, to the support groups that grew up around Robert Rimmer’s 1966 novel â€Å"The Harrad Experiment,† to the cult of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Polyamorists proselytize for â€Å"responsible non-monogamy†Ã¢â‚¬â€œopen, loving, and stable sexual relationships among more than two people. The modern polyamory movement took off in the mid-nineties–partly because of the growth of the Internet (with its confidentiality), but also in parallel to, and inspired by, the rising gay marriage movement. Unlike classic polygamy, which features one man and several women, polyamory comprises a bewildering variety of sexual combinations. There are triads of one woman and two men; heterosexual group marriages; groups in which some or all members are bisexual; lesbian groups, and so forth. (For details, see Deborah Anapol’s â€Å"Polyamory: The New Love Without Limits,† one of the movement’s authoritative guides, or Google the word polyamory. ) Supposedly, polyamory is not a synonym for promiscuity. In practice, though, there is a continuum between polyamory and â€Å"swinging. † Swinging couples dally with multiple sexual partners while intentionally avoiding emotional entanglements. Polyamorists, in contrast, try to establish stable emotional ties among a sexually connected group. Although the subcultures of swinging and polyamory are recognizably different, many individuals move freely between them. And since polyamorous group marriages can be sexually closed or open, it’s often tough to draw a line between polyamory and swinging. Here, then, is the modern American version of Nigeria’s extramarital polygamous promiscuity. Once the principles of monogamous companionate marriage are breached, even for supposedly stable and committed sexual groups, the slide toward full-fledged promiscuity is difficult to halt. Polyamorists are enthusiastic proponents of same-sex marriage. Obviously, any attempt to restrict marriage to a single man and woman would prevent the legalization of polyamory. After passage of the Defense of Marriage Act in 1996, an article appeared in Loving More, the flagship magazine of the polyamory movement, calling for the creation of a polyamorist rights movement modeled on the movement for gay rights. The piece was published under the pen name Joy Singer, identified as the graduate of a â€Å"top ten law school† and a political organizer and public official in California for the previous two decades. Taking a leaf from the gay marriage movement, Singer suggested starting small. A campaign for hospital visitation rights for polyamorous spouses would be the way to begin. Full marriage and adoption rights would come later. Again using the gay marriage movement as a model, Singer called for careful selection of acceptable public spokesmen (i. e. , people from longstanding poly families with children). Singer even published a speech by Iowa state legislator Ed Fallon on behalf of gay marriage, arguing that the goal would be to get a congressman to give exactly the same speech as Fallon, but substituting the word â€Å"poly† for â€Å"gay† throughout. Try telling polyamorists that the link between gay marriage and group marriage is a mirage. The flexible, egalitarian, and altogether postmodern polyamorists are more likely to influence the larger society than Mormon polygamists. The polyamorists go after monogamy in a way that resonates with America’s secular, post-sixties culture. Yet the fundamental drawback is the same for Mormons and polyamorists alike. Polyamory websites are filled with chatter about jealousy, the problem that will not go away. Inevitably, group marriages based on modern principles of companionate love, without religious rules and restraints, are unstable. Like the short-lived hippie communes, group marriages will be broken on the contradiction between companionate love and group solidarity. And children will pay the price. The harms of state-sanctioned polyamorous marriage would extend well beyond the polyamorists themselves. Once monogamy is defined out of marriage, it will be next to impossible to educate a new generation in what it takes to keep companionate marriage intact. State-sanctioned polyamory would spell the effective end of marriage. And that is precisely what polyamory’s new–and surprisingly influential–defenders are aiming for. The family law radicals STATE-SANCTIONED polyamory is now the cutting-edge issue among scholars of family law. The preeminent school of thought in academic family law has its origins in the arguments of radical gay activists who once opposed same-sex marriage. In the early nineties, radicals like longtime National Gay and Lesbian Task Force policy director Paula Ettelbrick spoke out against making legal marriage a priority for the gay rights movement. Marriage, Ettelbrick reminded her fellow activists, â€Å"has long been the focus of radical feminist revulsion. † Encouraging gays to marry, said Ettelbrick, would only force gay â€Å"assimilation† to American norms, when the real object of the gay rights movement ought to be getting Americans to accept gay difference. â€Å"Being queer,† said Ettelbrick, â€Å"means pushing the parameters of sex and family, and in the process transforming the very fabric of society. † Promoting polyamory is the ideal way to â€Å"radically reorder society’s view of the family,† and Ettelbrick, who has since formally signed on as a supporter of gay marriage (and is frequently quoted by the press), is now part of a movement that hopes to use gay marriage as an opening to press for state-sanctioned polyamory. Ettelbrick teaches law at the University of Michigan, New York University, Barnard, and Columbia. She has a lot of company. How to cite The road to polyamory, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Schopenhauer Essays - Philosophy, Kantianism, Idealists, Metaphysics

Schopenhauer Schopenhauer sought to understand and describe the world and the things of the world. Building off of the ideas of Plato, Descartes, and Kant, however doing away with the aspect of dualism in their theories, he developed the concept of Will and Representation. The world as Will according to Schopenhauer is all that exists for knowledge, only object in relation to subject, perception of a perceiver, in a word, idea. Everything in the world is a representation and everything one sees is a representation in ones mind. That which forces the Representation into being is the Will. In Schopenhauers doctrine of the thing-in-itself, or the Will, he proposes that experience is made up of subject and object. There is no object, (time and space, cause), without a subject (that which knows) and no subject without an object. In fact, to be an object for the subject and to be Representation are one in the same. Of these, the subject can never be known and knows everything that is knowable. Objects on the other hand are constructed by the activity of the intellect working upon sensations or bodily affections. Objects are constructed by the minds own activity out of sensations and at the same time are the result of natural and unknown forces. In our cognitive experience we never touch the real; things-in-themselves are not to be known on any terms by any intelligence. But in inner experience, in the consciousness of internal states we do come across something that is more than phenomenal; this is the will. The will has both an inner and an outer side, inner for immediate consciousness and outer for intelligence. The inner is the act of willing and the outer is bodily motion. These two are not different; they only appear in different ways. Will is the real thing, or thing-in-itself, its manifestations phenomena. Thus at the root of existence in all its varied forms there is Will supporting them, manifesting itself in them. Will is not phenomenal, not given in Representation, not in time or space, not individualized, and not subject to the law of casualty. The Will in itself lies beyond the sphere of space, time and casualty, because these are subjective forms which spring into being only when a brain has been evolved. It c an have no individuality, no distinction or difference, no end towards which it works. Similar to Kants noumena, will is a blind, incessant impulse, a thing in itself, that which exits independently of our own perceptions. It is an inner, consciousness of our own existence, our feelings and desires; Will is reality. In my reading of the article Schopenhauers Philosophy by Robert Adamson and Schopenhauers The World as Representation, some questions come to mind pertaining to how the Will comes to assume its definite forms. No proposition is more insisted on by Schopenhauer than that the production of any effect requires the concurrence of a primitive force and some occasioning cause which directs the force. Adamson raises the question that if the will must be acted upon by some cause before it could take definite form, where does this cause come from? The will is the all; there is nothing outside of it to determine its action in any direction. I agree with Adamson in saying the will has in itself no power of development to any definite result, and the Ideas or stages are nothing but the scholastic substantial forms, abstracted from individuals and given an identity. Philosophy

Thursday, March 19, 2020

black essays

black essays Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different. The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel worthless and they treated them like animals. Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell you. Why wont they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because you are black. Actually, because your skin is a different color, your because youre a different kind of religion. In a way I admire them because theyve survived for hundreds of years until they were free, and now that theyre free, the modern white men harasses them and beats them. I mean, they even had a world wide organization named for them. The KKK has been around for awhile. The KKK or the Ku Klux Klan, was started to get rid of blacks and Jewish people. The author of "A Monument to Racism" writes in her article that she was in Flowery Branch, Georgia, and in front of Danny Carvers house, hes a KKK leader, was 8 or more signs, and on these signs read: "A brain is a terrible thing to waste, thats why niggers dont have one. (Glamour 110)." Another sign said "NAACP" or "Niggers, Alligators, Apes, Coons, and Possums. Or insisting that blacks dont have brains and that they should be treated like animals. Theres a figurine in front of the yard that had 4 young black men sitting on it with 2 KKK hooded members by them. To top it off, Carvers lawn was on the Atlantic highway, the main way through the capital. I strongly agree with Valerie Joseph when she says that she "wanted to believe that people actually cared, she wanted to believe that there were lawyers, activists, parents, church groups of all races that were bombarding this man with phone calls and letters. She hoped that maybe teenagers would plan to smash the figurine...

Monday, March 2, 2020

In Absentia Used As An Adjective

In Absentia Used As An Adjective â€Å"In Absentia† Used As An Adjective â€Å"In Absentia† Used As An Adjective By Maeve Maddox A reader has asked me to comment on the following uses of the Latin phrase in absentia (â€Å"in his/her absence†) in The Harvard Crimson: Headline: FAS Relaxes In Absentia Rules Text: Undergraduates studying abroad in spring 2007 will be able to take their fall exams early- if their instructors approve- rather than having to lug their books overseas for in absentia exams. The reader feels that the phrase should not be used to describe a noun: This usage looks incorrect to me. M-W describes [in absentia] only as an adverb. Regardless of what it says in the dictionary, in absentia is often used as a qualifier in academic and legal contexts: Fallows intended his in  absentia  program as a vehicle for reaching adults, not as  an option for the conventional, youthful collegiate audience. All degree requirements must be completed or in progress before the student can begin the in absentia graduation process. The in absentia registration fee is $25. If a defendant takes off during the pretrial phase, however, he may be able to elude an  in absentia conviction. In general usage, there’s no reason to use in absentia as anything but an adverb phrase: The degree was conferred upon the deployed soldier in absentia. The man was condemned in absentia. The new program chairman was elected in absentia. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:30 Synonyms for â€Å"Meeting†Social vs. Societal20 Slang Terms for Law Enforcement Personnel

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Role of Business Ethics in Staff Motivation and Productivity Essay

Role of Business Ethics in Staff Motivation and Productivity - Essay Example It is of pragmatic that literature on business ethics provide adequate and specific information on the needs of leaders and managers as they are mainly responsible for ethics management in the work environment (Schwartz and Weber 2006). Ethics programs in organisations generally aim to integrate ethical guidelines into processes and procedures and establish the necessary values and behaviours for operations within the organisation. Business ethics in the workplace establishes and fosters a moral course particularly during unstable times (Kapstein 2004). Paying attention to ethics when an organisation is faced with changes allows managers and employees to have a moral guide for them to realise what is good or bad. This becomes specially critical in coping with conflicts, facing risks, and responding to ambiguous circumstances (Schwartz 2001). Continual support for ethics in the workplace enables leaders and members to become sensitive to how they ought to think and behave. Due to the emphasis on ethical principles in the conduct of activities and procedures, business ethics has been shown to produce favourable outcomes for the organisation. These include increased level of employee commitment, motivation, productivity, and performance (Ferrell 2004). Hence, the current study aims to examine the impact of business ethics in UK organisations especially on employees’ sense of productivity and motivation. 1.2 Background of the Organisation Wolseley UK, also formerly known as Wolseley Centers, is widely known as one of United Kingdom’s largest suppliers of building materials, with plumbing and building firms as their common trade customers, accounting for the largest share of their sales. It has been reported to distribute a substantial amount of materials to the international market and has continued to expand to 25 countries (Wolseley Annual Report 2009). Wolseley UK has set a number of policies with which the company aims to further enhance each of t heir business aspects. Quality policy remains to be an important objective through a reliable quality environment for both suppliers and customers, particularly by successfully meeting all contractual requirements. Health and safety concerns regarding their employees, customers, and the larger community have also become a top priority for Wolseley UK as the company intends to foster a healthy workplace wherein their employees’ attain a sense of well-being and comfort while their customers are assured of accident-free operations. Moreover, the company’s policies also highlight the importance of environmental care. Regarding their human resources, Wolseley UK aims to make the best use of every employee’s potential regardless of demographics, cultural, social, or economic differences, and attempts to provide opportunities for training and development. Finally, the company relies on a code of ethics that emphasizes the significance of fair competition, risk manageme nt, environmental protection, and interpersonal relationships with employees and customers (Wolseley 2010). 1.3 Research Aims and Objectives Owing to previous studies that have pointed out the favourable impact of business ethics on organisations, the current stud